I Am Addicted 2

  • Overdose: An unconscious person suspected of overdosing on narcotics is given naloxone, a narcotic antagonist. When given intravenously, it is effective in   one to two minutes in reversing the coma and respiratory depression caused by a narcotic.
  • Withdrawal: Treating people who are addicted to narcotics is  difficult. The most common long-term treatment of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome is substituting methadone for the illicit drug, followed by a slow process of then weaning the abuser off the methadoneBuprenorphine (Buprenex) is another medicine that can be used in the process of detoxification, with the concept being to replace one opioid (for example, heroin) with another and then taper the second opioid slowly.
  • The drug clonidine (Catapres) has been shown to relieve some of the symptoms of withdrawal, especially salivation, runny nose, sweating, abdominal cramping, and muscle aches. Clonidine, when used in combination with naltrexone (ReVia), a long-acting narcotic antagonist, produces a more rapid detoxification.
  • Buprenorphine is also used in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms

Narcotics users can develop tolerance, as well as psychological and physical dependence to opioids when they take them over an extended period of time.

  • Tolerance refers to a decreased response to a drug, with increasing doses required to achieve comparable effects.
  • Psychological dependence refers to compulsive drug use in which a person uses the drug for personal satisfaction, often in spite of knowing the health risks.
  • Physical dependence occurs when a person stops using the narcotic but experiences a withdrawal syndrome (or set of symptoms).
  • Signs and symptoms of narcotic abuse
  •   Signs and symptoms of narcotic withdrawal: The withdrawal syndrome from narcotics generally includes signs and symptoms opposite of the drug’s intended medical effects. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome increases as the drug dose increases. The longer the duration of the physical dependence to the narcotic increases, the more severe the withdrawal syndrome. Symptoms of heroin withdrawal generally appear 12-14 hours after the last dose. Symptoms of methadone withdrawal appear 24-36 hours after the last dose. Heroin withdrawal peaks within 36-72 hours and may last   seven to 14 days. Methadone withdrawal peaks at three to five days and may last   three to four weeks. Although uncomfortable, acute narcotic withdrawal for adults is not considered life-threatening unless the person has a medical condition that  compromises their health (for example, if someone has severe heart disease).  Some of the signs and symptoms of narcotic withdrawal are listed below:
  • Complications of narcotic abuse: Many complications can result from narcotic abuse, the most common being infectious conditions.

Narcotic drugs produce their effect by stimulating opioid receptors in the central nervous systemand surrounding tissues.

The abuse of narcotics   occurs as a result of the euphoria and sedation that narcotics produce within the central nervous system. Abusers of intravenously injected heroin describe the effects as a “rush” or orgasmic feeling followed by elation, relaxation, and then sedation or sleep.

Narcotics used for short-term medical conditions rarely require weaning since stopping the medication after a brief period rarely produces adverse effects. If circumstances allow, the dose for people using narcotics over an extended period of time for medical purposes is slowly lowered over a few weeks to prevent withdrawal symptoms.  The goal is to wean individuals off narcotics so that they are pain-free or able to use a less potent nonnarcotic analgesic.

Pain is one of the most common reasons people seek medical treatment. Doctors can prescribe several different drugs to relieve pain. The most potent pain-relieving drugs are narcotics.

In the United States, narcotics are widely prescribed to treat painful   conditions. Narcotics are often prescribed in conjunction with other less   potent drugs (such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications) or as a pill   that has a combination of a narcotic with either acetaminophen (for example, Tylenol) or aspirin (Arthritis Pain, Aspergum Cherry, Aspergum Orginal, Aspir-Low, Aspirin Lite Coat, Aspirin Low Strength, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Aspirin Regimen, Bayer Childrens Aspirin, Bufferin, Bufferin Arthritis Strength, Easprin, Ecotrin, Empirin, Fasprin, Genacote, Halfprin, Norwich Aspirin, St. Joseph Aspirin, St. Joseph Aspirin Adult Chewable, Stanback Analgesic, Tri-Buffered Aspirin, Zorprin).   Acetaminophen is also commonly found in many different products   that are available as over-the-counter (OTC) medications. With the public often   using OTC products that contain acetaminophen as well as prescription narcotics   that might also have acetaminophen, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)   has become concerned about dangerous interactions from combining these   medications. There is not just the potential for narcotic abuse but the concern   that patients are accidentally ingesting too much acetaminophen from combining   these products with the potential for severe liver damage or even death.

The use of prescription pain relievers without a doctor’s prescription only   for the experience or the feeling it causes is often called “nonmedical” use.   Narcotic use is considered abuse when people use narcotics to seek feelings of   well-being apart from the narcotic’s pain-relief applications.

The U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA) report that   after marijuana, nonmedical use of painkillers is the second most common form of   illicit drug use in the United States. According to SAMHSA, 21% of people age 12   and older (5.2 million individuals) reported using prescription pain relievers   nonmedically in 2007. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency suggests that the number   of people abusing any prescription drugs is even higher at 7 million   individuals.

SAMHSA’s Drug Abuse Warning Network reported that approximately 324,000   emergency department visits in 2006 involved the nonmedical use of pain   relievers (this includes both prescription and over-the-counter pain   medications). According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, there   were an estimated 90,232 emergency department visits related to narcotic   analgesic abuse in 2001.

  • Morphine (Avinza, Kadian, Morphine IR, MS Contin, MSIR, Oramorph SR, Roxanol) and codeine are natural derivatives of the opium poppy. Related   medications that are semisynthetic include drugs such as heroin, oxycodone   (Percocet, Percodan, OxyContin), and hydrocodone and acetaminophen (Vicodin). Synthetic   medications in this class include drugs such as methadone (Diskets, Dolophine, Methadose), meperidine (Demerol),   and fentanyl. All medications in this group are called opiates or narcotics.   Some chemicals, called endorphins, occur naturally in the body and produce a   morphine-like effect.
  • The most commonly abused illicit narcotic is heroin, but   all prescription narcotics have the potential for abuse. In 2008, the Florida   Medical Examiners Commission noted that prescription opioid painkillers (such as   Vicodin, Percocet, and OxyContin) caused more deaths than illicit substances   such as heroin.

Narcotics have many useful pain-relieving applications in   medicine. They are used not only to relieve pain for people with chronic   diseases such as cancer but also to relieve acute pain after operations.   Doctors may also prescribe narcotics for painful acute conditions, such as   corneal abrasions, kidney stones, and broken bones.

When people use narcotics   exclusively to control pain, it is unlikely that they become addicted or   dependent on them. A patient is given a dosage of opioids strong enough to   reduce their awareness of pain but not normally potent enough to produce a   euphoric state.

Adequate pain control is the goal for the medical use of   narcotics. Thus, patients or health-care professionals should not allow fear of   addiction to interfere with using narcotics for effective pain relief.

The difference between opioid abuse, dependence, and addiction

There is somewhat of a continuum between opioid abuse, opioid dependence, and   addiction. Individuals who use narcotics to the extent that they start to   interfere with the person’s ability to do routine activities or fulfill regular   responsibilities at home, at school, or at work would be considered to be   abusing opioids. Other signs that individuals are abusing opioids include   maladaptive behaviors that impact adversely on relationships, worsening of   interpersonal problems, or frequent involvement with legal problems related to   opioid use.

Individuals who have opioid dependence often will manifest some of the following   symptoms.

  • Ingestion of larger and larger amounts of opioids or for longer periods of   time than intended
  • Desire or compulsion to take the drug with significant amount of time spent   trying to obtain opioids
  • Withdrawal symptoms if the drug is stopped or the amount taken is reduced
  • The need for increased amounts of drug to achieve the original effects   (tolerance)
  • Social, recreational, occupational, or pleasurable activities are neglected
  • Persistent use of narcotics even when evidence that is harmful to their body,   mood, thinking, or actions
  • Addiction is elevated narcotic abuse that becomes a craving, with   compulsive need to use opioids and often self-destructive behavior

Posted on: October 1, 2012

If you read the recent posts and news stories, illegal street drugs (bath salts, cocaine, etc.) seem to be at the root of the recent flesh eating bacteria ‘zombie’ stories that keep popping up.


-Is that because some drugs have been ‘spiked’ with the Flesh Eating Bacteria?

-Or is there a common component or ingredient in these drugs that has been mutated to start this epidemic?  For example, maybe a large crop of the poppy seeds which codeine is made from have been mutated or genetically modified.

-A less likely possibility offered is that it could be that the injection site is being infected with the bacteria.

If this ‘alteration’ to the drugs or the bacteria was done intentionally, that could explain the CDC‘s warning a year ago… they knew it was being done and that cases would be on the rise as more of the deadly drugs got distributed.

P.S. Are the “Flesh Eating” cases where people are exposed to the bacteria related?

A mutation, alteration,  or modification of the bacteria could be the link.


Flesh-Eating Disease Blamed on ‘Bath Salts

ABC News Jan 13, 2012

Flesh-eating bacteria devoured the muscle and skin on the arm of a New Orleans woman after she injected “bath salts,” an increasingly popular stimulant drug. Doctors say the infection is unusual, but might become more widespread as more users inject the drug to get high…

…Russo said he’s uncertain how the flesh-eating bacteria got into the woman’s arm. It could have been lurking on the needle she used or in the bath salts themselves. But he said he worries that the drug’s growing popularity means more people will be at risk for infection…

…Bath salts are a powder made of amphetamine-like chemicals, such as methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MPDV), mephedrone and pyrovalerone, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Once sold legally online and in drug paraphernalia stores, users mostly snorted or swallowed it to get high. Recently, injection has become a more popular route, because it delivers the drug’s effects faster and more powerfully…

[link to abcnews.go.com]




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